Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Northern Tanzania, just south of Lake Natron, is a distinctive and incredibly fascinating volcano that soars over the East African Rift Valley at an elevation of 2960 meters (9711 feet). It is the only volcano in the world to occasionally produce natrocarbonatite lava, a lava that is extremely fluid and virtually entirely devoid of silicon.
Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano is located next to Lake Natron, where hundreds of thousands of pink flamingos migrate each year, in one of North Tanzania’s most picturesque regions. Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only active volcano in East Africa and the only one in the entire globe that spews natrocarbonatite lava, also known as “cold lava.” When it is liquid, it is a dark-brown or black color and fluid like water. This lava’s temperature is between 510 and 600°C, which is much lower than that of other lava but not very chilly. Lengai has erupted roughly 15 times in a century; the most recent eruption occurred in 2013. Fortunately, because of the volcano’s tiny size and remote location from the nearest Maasai villages, eruptions rarely result in casualties.